Indian Polity – UPSC Notes – IAS Notes – HPAS – Notes- Indian Polity Notes – LakshmiKant Summary – LakshmiKant Notes in PDF
Indian Polity: Constitution is one of the, if not the most, important scribes of Indian Polity. In today’s chapter, we will give you important notes from the second chapter of Indian Polity by Lakshmikant which is making of our constitution.
Here are some important dates and facts
1934: Idea of Constituent Assembly was given by M.N. Roy ( Pioneer of the Communist movement in India)
1935: Indian National Congress also demanded the same.
1940: Accepted by British in what is called “August Offer”
1942: Sir Stafford Crips made a draft which was rejected by the Muslim League; they wanted 2 constituent Assembly.
24 March 1946: Cabinet Mission was set up having 3 British Cripps, Alexander and Lawrence which presented its first plan on May 16th 1946 and abolished the idea of 2 constituent assemblies.
Jul/Aug 1946: Elections took place in which INC got 208 seats, Muslim League got 73 and others got 15.
- The British divided the seats into British India and Princely states, there were 296 British India seat ( out of which 11 were governor provinces and 4 were chief commissioner one)
- Governor provinces were Madras, Bombay, UP, Bihar, Central Provinces, Orrisa, Punjab, NWFP, Sindh, Bengal and Assam and Chief Commissioner provinces were Delhi, Ajmer, Coorg and British Baluchistan)
- Seats were divided as 1 for every million population.
- Seats were divided into communities like Muslim, Sikh, General, proportionate to the population in British India.
- The representatives of Princely states were to nominated by the heads of them however no such seat got filled as all princely states stayed away from elections.
- All important personalities of then were in it except Gandhi.
Nov 1946: The assembly got constituted.
Dec 9th 1946: First Meeting took place with Dr Sacchidanand Sinha acting as the President (following French Tradition where Oldest member becomes the president). It had 211 attendees as Muslim League Boycotted, still demanding Pakistan.
Dec 11th 1946: In the second meeting, Dr Rajinder Prasand became elected president. The assembly also worked as legislative ( or law enacting) body and when it did, the president was GV Mavlanker.
Dec 13th 1946: Nehru presented the objective resolution ( which was adopted on Jan 22nd 1947) whose modified version is today’s Preamble.
- The Constituent assembly had 11 sessions and sat for 2 years 11 months and 18 days. The first draft was presented in Feb 1948 second in Oct.
- The draft was considered for 114 days and constitution makers visited 60 countries and spent 6 lakhs.
- After the withdrawal of Muslim League, the assembly strength stood at 299 ( Indian provinces and 70 Princely states)
- It Ratified Commonwealth membership on May 1949
- Adopted Nation Flag on 22 July 1947
- Adopted National Anthem on 24 January 1950
- Adopted National Song on 24th January 1950
- Dr Rajender Prasad Became the first president on 24 January 1950.
Other important points :
Committee and heads :
Nehru – Union Power, Union Consitution
Patel – Provincial Constitution
Ambedkar – Drafting
Patel – Advisory on Minorities and Foreign relation
Rajender Prasad: Rules of Procedure
Drafting Committee had 7 members who presented the final draft on 4th Nov 1948 it was enacted on Nov 26, 1949, with 395 articles and 8 schedules. 284 present members signed it out of a total of 299.
The day of 26 January was chosen because on this day in 1930 Purna Swaraj was celebrated.
The seal was Elephant with advisor BN Rau, secretary HVR Iyengar and chief draftsman SN Mukherjee
Prem Bihari Narain Raizada was the calligrapher
Nand Lal Bose and Ram Manohar Sinha decorated the constitution
Hindi version was decorated by Nandlal bose and Vasant Krishnan Vaidya.
The next chapter and notes on Indian Polity will be added soon.
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